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Health Studies

Teens Who Smoked Marijuana May Have Also Vaped or Eaten It in Other Ways

Teens smoking marijuana may have tried vaping and marijuana edibles.



Teens smoking marijuana
Teen smoking marijuana. Photo Credit: Audreysteenhaut/Pixabay

Researchers from the University of Southern Carolina (USC) revealed that teens who have used marijuana in one way may have also tried it in other forms. In a study published in the journal JAMA Network Open, the researchers stated teens who smoked cannabis may have vaped it or eaten it as marijuana edibles.

Adam Leventhal, professor of preventive medicine and psychology and director of the USC Health, Emotion and Addiction Laboratory at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, stated that when teenagers try marijuana, they grow to depend on it throughout their adulthood, thereby raising the risks of impaired cognitive development.

Media Advertising Make Teens to Percieve Marijuana as Beneficial

He lamented the role of media advertising where ads portray cannabis as beneficial and harmless. To this end, legalization and commercialization of marijuana fosters teens’ perception that it is okay to use marijuana for as long as possible.

In a survey of 3,177 10th-graders from the Los Angeles areas, the research team administered questionaires to teens at 10 Los Angeles area high schools to know their involvements with cannabis. The survey was carried out from January to October 2015 – three years before California legalized marijuana for recreational purposes.

The students were asked if they had ever used marijuana in their life. Reference to smoked, vaped or edible marijuana was worded to make them understand it the way it is used on the streets.

About 33.9% of the respondents reported ever using cannabis with most of them saying they smoked it. About 61.7% said they adopted cannabis in various forms; and 7.8% said they consumed marijuana edibles and vaped it but never tried smoking it.

“A key question is whether a new pool of teens who’ve traditionally been at lower risk for smoking marijuana have been drawn to using the drug in these alternative non-smoked forms,” Leventhal said.

Nicotine from Vaping Increases the Tendency to Try Out Traditional Cigarettes

The point here is that many teens may have tried to consume marijuana edibles and opted for flavored vaping forms because they found the pungent smell unbearable from smoking it. Moreover, other studies conducted by Leventhal indicated that large amounts of nicotine derived from vaping may raise the tendencies of teens to use conventional cigarettes.

The study was funded by a grant from the National Institutes of Health as part of an ongoing project looking at patterns of substance use and mental health over time.

Other members of the research team include –

  • Jessica L. Barrington-Trimis of USC’s Department of Preventive Medicine
  • Erica N. Peters of the Battelle Public Health Center for Tobacco Research, Battelle Memorial Institute, Baltimore
  • Dayoung Bae of the Center for Family Research, University of Georgia, Athens
  • Prantley P. Jarvis of NorthTide Group, LLC, Edgewood, Md.

Leila and her parents migrated to the United States in 1990. She grew up in Brooklyn but eventually attended U of C, Davis where she studied Health Sciences. She has written for several local newspapers but currently contributes to HNO. She juggles this with working as a personal trainer and physical therapist.

Health Studies

Diet May Have A Bigger Influence On Mood Than We Thought



An interesting new study published in the PLOS ONE journal has revealed some interesting insights about how a healthy diet can help to combat depression. While it has been known for a significant amount of time that diet influences moods, this new study shows some previously-unknown facts and data that is difficult to argue with. In this study, the authors studied and monitored a group of young adults: one group followed a healthy diet for three weeks, while the others didn’t change their diets. The first group showed significantly lower levels of anxiety and stress. Meanwhile, those in the second group – who had a much higher intake of carbohydrates, processed foods and sugar – tended to do far worse.

According to a researcher in the study, Heather Francis, the results were actually somewhat surprising. “I think the next step is to demonstrate the physiological mechanism underlying how diet can improve depression symptoms,” Francis said.

In the study, people in the first group are far more fruit and vegetables per week, which seemed to make the biggest difference.

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Health Studies

Studies of Second-Hand Marijuana Smoke and Drug Testing



The known health risks of secondhand cigarette smoke to the lungs and heart raise questions about whether the similar secondhand marijuana smoke exposure poses same health risks. Not only adults, but also children, and even pets may suffer from accidental ingestion of secondhand marijuana.

Since cannabis has gotten more potent, it has been legalized in many states across the U.S. This puts nonsmokers at the increasing risk of inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke, which can ultimately influence their drug testing. This is why they frequently ask about the potential psychoactive result of such exposure and whether an individual who has been exposed to it could fail a drug test.

Recent studies show that while secondhand marijuana smoke can negatively affect the health of the exposed individuals, it will unlikely make them fail their drug test.

In one study, researchers measured THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) content in the blood samples of people who did not use marijuana, but had spent more than three hours in a well-ventilated space with individuals smoking it. It was found that the blood samples of non-smoking participants tested positive with THC, however the levels were below the 50 ng/ml required to fail regular drug testing.

Another study published in the Journal of Analytical Toxicology has something else to say. This research suggests that inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke in some cases can lead to a failed drug test. In this study nonsmokers were exposed to extreme marijuana smoke in poorly ventilated rooms with smokers. After that, the scientists tested the urine samples of the nonsmokers for 9-carboxy-THC, and only one sample out of 12 surpassed typically detectable levels (50 ng/ml). This happened after the nonsmoking participant was exposed to 4-6 hours of marijuana smoke.  

The THC levels in urine of nonsmokers were rapidly decreasing with time, which shows that drug tests can be passed in a matter of hours or even minutes depending on the exposure.

Although most of the samples were tested negative during the urine test, this study shows that positive result is possible, but only in the extreme conditions.

Researchers also said that THC in urine of secondhand smokers could be detected using a more sensitive tests with cutoff levels less than 50 ng/ml. Fortunately, organizations and workplaces don’t employ such drug tests.  

So, this is a bit of a relief for people who do not smoke themselves, but have weed-using friends.

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Health Studies

An interview with Dr. Dushyant Singh (founder of Medical Cannabis Clinic Australia, an online clinic)



Medical cannabis clinic Australia is an online clinic founded by Dr Dushyant Singh to help Australians start on medical cannabis for their chronic medical conditions. We interviewed Dr Dushyant Singh to learn more about his Online clinic.

What inspired you to start up Medical Cannabis clinic?

I have a vast experience in Chronic disease management, and Very often, I come across medical conditions where conventional treatments have failed or causing significant side effects. Being from India, where there is evidence of the use of medical cannabis as one of the 1st medications in the world, I firmly believe this to be a great medication. And after the legalization of medical marijuana in Australia, every patient I have prescribed Medical cannabis the result has been better than my expectation each time.

We need to change the way we think about marijuana – not as a drug of addiction but as an outstanding therapeutic agent. Used judicially and responsibly under the guidance of doctors, the benefits for managing chronic medical conditions with our patients, are clear.

For me, being a medical cannabis prescriber has provided some of my most satisfying experiences as a doctor. The feedback from patients has been impressive:

I still have pain, but it doesn’t bother me now.”

I feel more motivated.”

I feel clearer in my head.”

I got my life back.”

Seeing medical cannabis alleviate the physical pain and mental suffering of patients is incredibly rewarding. Feedback like this is why we become healthcare providers.

What services do you offer?

Through my online medical cannabis clinic I offer eligibility assessment for medical cannabis, then help the patient select the type of product which can be dried flower, CBD oil, THC oil, CBD buccal spray and CBD crystal.  Once the treatment plan is decided, I offer patient education and they need to sign a written consent form. As a part of 1st appointment, I apply for government approval for medical cannabis.

After starting medical cannabis, then next is monthly follow up, its essential part of treatment.

What fees you charge and what is the cost of medical cannabis?

For the 1st consultation, my fees is $199 and monthly follow up cost is $89, the cost of medical cannabis can be up to $10/day. DVA and private health insurance are paying for medical cannabis.

Where do you get the medical cannabis from?

I only do consultation and its similar to any other medical consultation and I write scripts and send to the pharmacy who has the licence for dispensing, they can even post it to your address. The pharmacy order the medical cannabis from the local importers.

What medical conditions Medical cannabis are used for?

There are many medical conditions where medical cannabis has been successfully used and has shown to be effective.  Some of the medical conditions I have prescribed medical cannabis are

Chronic Pain Conditions

Chronic non-cancer pain

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Headache

Fibromyalgia pain

Arthritis Pain

Chronic Hip pain

Chronic Back pain

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pain


Chronic pelvic pain


Neuropathic Pain

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Peripheral Neuropathy


Palliative Care

Palliative Pain


Neurological Conditions

Multiple Sclerosis Pain

Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity




Sleep Disorders

Chronic Insomnia

Sleep Apnea



Cancer pain

Chemo-induced Nausea

Anorexia and wasting associated with cancer or chronic illness


Paediatric Conditions

Paediatric epilepsy



Tourette’s Syndrome


Psychiatric Conditions



Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder




Has lasted three months or longer

also, has not responded to conventional medical treatment, or has side effects


How does your online clinic work?

Patients can go to my  website  and on the appointment page they can select 1st consultation, pay the fee online, then it will give them the option to choose a date and time of consultation with me and a form to fill medical details. The patient gets confirmation details with a link for teleconsultation in their e-mail.

They get reminders before the appointment time.

During the consultation, I take further details needed for assessment for medical cannabis. Once prescribed, we have our team will contact each patient at a time interval of 1 week, three weeks and monthly after that for follow up.

I help patients with dose titration and once good results are achived I help them slowly wean off other medications.

Thank you Dushyant for sharing your thoughts with us!
If you have more questions, you can follow up with Dr Dushyant Singh for Medical cannabis  at:

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